I want to test a pair of assertions: Iâ€™ve said for aÂ long timeÂ that there are two main things that make games different from anything else thatâ€™s â€śdesigned.â€ť
The first is that no oneÂ hasÂ to play a game.
The second is that unlike any other device or software, games are entirelyÂ autotelic: the goal of a game is the goal set within the game (or within the playerâ€™s head). Games donâ€™t exist to extend, assist, or support some external goal.
Those may not seem like much, but they create conditions that set games wholly apart from any other kind of human creation, and game design apart from any other kind of design. I think this leads in useful directions, but first I want to explore and test these assertions.
First, no one has to play a game. By contrast, if your company adopts new software for accounting or travel, you pretty much have to use it. If your bank changes how their ATMs work, youâ€™re going to get used to it (or switch banks). But with a game, if you donâ€™t like it or donâ€™t get it, you can drop it â€” the game is entirely optional.
This means that game designers are constantly on the knife-edge in ways that other designers arenâ€™t. Games have to attract a potential playerâ€™s attention. They have to draw the player in, help them build a mental model of what the game presents, and make that engaging enough that the player will stick with it andÂ wantÂ to put in the energy needed to gain some level of mastery. This means that games are under immense pressure to evolve as fast as possible. There are always other games (now, hundreds of new ones appearing every day for mobile devices) that players can turn to, aside from anything in the playerâ€™s life that theyÂ haveÂ to do.
As a result, game designers spend a lot of time playing games designed by others to learn from them and apply their lessons to their own games. Itâ€™s no wonder that games change so rapidly and continuously, or that they consistently lead other forms of technology in the use of graphics, hardware, engagement, narrative, and interaction design.
The second point may be even more important: games are autotelic. Spreadsheets and word processors exist to support an external goal; so do paint programs, flight and process control software, etc. Even in the physical world, hammers, saws, drills, backhoes, scalpels, door handles and everything else you interact with on a daily basis that has beenÂ designed exists to further some goal that is external to the artifact themselves. Art, in the sense of paintings, literature, and sculpture, are, like games, concerned only with the goal that the artist sets for them. But unlike games they stand on their own; they are not truly interactive (a statement some will take issue with, but this is a different and longer argument). An artwork may engage someone mentally and emotionally, but it does not create a set of goals and tasks for the viewer. Since only games are both autotelic and interactive, only they enable the player to fulfill some set of goals, changing as the player changes, continually leading them to new internally defined goals.
In the realm of software in particular, only games (and toy-like games in which the player sets their own goals) escape servingÂ some external and pre-existing set of goals and tasks. As a result, there is no â€śtask analysisâ€ť that can yield a set of requirements for a game; part of the game designerâ€™s job is toÂ createÂ the playerâ€™s tasks and goals out of thin air. Sometimes these may refer to some approximation of the real world (as in a flight simulator), but in some of the most charming examplesÂ they have only a tenuous connection to anything like our world, as in Idaâ€™s curious journey inÂ Monument Valley.
If these assertions are accurate, they have huge consequences for how we think about and practice game design, and for the place of game design in the overall sphere of design as practice and as a way of thinking. Games may, I believe, provide us a window into a kind of pure design, unencumbered by pre-defined external goals and tasks. If so, they alsoÂ illuminate some important aspects of design and how we structure our thinking far beyond games andÂ about the world in general. This is a point Iâ€™ll pick up later.
What do you think? Are these assertions accurate? Are there examples of non-game artifacts that are optional and autotelic? Are there other important differences between games and non-game artifacts, or between game design and other kinds of design? Or, are these statements correct as far as they go, but they miss something essential?
I look forward to hearing othersâ€™ thoughts on this.
[This originally appeared on Mike Sellers' blog.]