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Postmortem: 11 Bit Studios' Anomaly Warzone Earth
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Postmortem: 11 Bit Studios' Anomaly Warzone Earth

January 28, 2013 Article Start Page 1 of 4 Next

The popular "inverted tower defense" game was the first created by 11 Bit Studios, a team of Polish veteran developers. Here, Paweł Miechowski, the studio's senior writer, talks about the difficulties and successes of booting up and building a game at the same time.

Anyone who has ever worked on a project in the entertainment industry -- whether it's a movie, a music album, or a game -- knows well the feeling of being proud when the moment of finalizing the project arrives. This pride is some unique mixture of the joy of finishing the work and something that parents feel when their kid has learned to walk or has been given their first A in school. Of course, parents (usually) don't celebrate this moment with barrels of beer, as often happens in the game development industry.

If this comparison is applied to the game industry model, then our kid has a teacher or a supervisor (the publisher), who has his own ideas for teaching the kid to walk. Sometimes it works fine, but sometimes the kid falls over on its own feet, much to frustration of the parents. Sometimes the teacher takes care of teaching the child how to walk as well as the parents, but later, in kindergarten, he doesn't pay much attention at all, and our kid is left on his own, not integrating with the others, and no one is interested in him.

And sometimes the teacher is flat broke or mean as a Scrooge, and he doesn't even get the kid a bus ticket to the kindergarten (well, that's what parents should do, but this is the hypothetical model, right?) Then no one will befriend with the kid, he'll fade into obscurity and end up as abandonware. While we want him to have a lot of friends and not only be given As in school, but also win competitions and awards. (Sometimes the teacher really takes care of a kid, but that's something for a different story.)

That's why one day we decided to quit the jobs we had at the time and found a new studio to be -- from that point -- completely independent. Awareness of the future difficulties or a lack thereof did not matter.

We wanted to become parents, who are the only people responsible for their kid, because we believed -- and still believe -- that no one would take care of the project better. We wanted to make absolutely personal games, completely in our own way, and use the blessed opportunity of digital distribution, where the creator is also a publisher. That's how 11 Bit Studios was born.

Apart from business independence, several thoughts were fundamental when the studio was created:

- The leading theme of the first game will be gameplay. We won't make a story-driven game, because it's not our strong point. Experience prompted us to make a gameplay-driven game.

- The concept has to be original, innovative, and fresh.

- In the past we used to work pretty efficiently on our own engines, so at the start we decided to create the base fundaments for a new proprietary engine chiefly adapted to our needs.

Anomaly Warzone Earth (prototype, top; final game, bottom)

What Went Right

1. Multiplatform Development on Our Own Engine

The Liquid Engine has been in development by the lead programmer Bartek Brzostek, in consultation with the designer Michal Drozdowski (back then, the only designer, now design director) and with artist Przemek Marszał (back then, the only one, now art director) since December 2009.

In April 2010, the base allowed us to build the first raw level. Fast? At the time, Bartek had over 10 years of experience in engine and advanced tools creation for building graphics and the logic of a game, so the decision to build our own engine was pretty natural -- let the guy do the engine if he's been making engines for years. He needed only time to prepare the fundaments of the new engine.

Indies are often advised to not waste time on the creation of proprietary tools and just quickly go into production on some external engine. This, however, has some serious drawbacks we wanted to avoid.

Firstly, no engine supports all platforms. For us, it was extremely important to port the game to as many of them as possible to enable multiple revenue streams. Secondly, using a third-party engine provides you with certain tools and features but no more. If you need something really custom, you're screwed; the engine developer won't deliver custom features for a small indie startup. Sometimes there is an option to acquire the source code and develop these features on your own; however, in most cases, it's not free. In essence, by using an engine out of the box, you give up a lot of flexibility and involve third-party risk. Most startups have no real alternative to this. We, however, did.

From the outset, our team was very strong in the field of technology (frankly speaking, it was very strong in all areas). We had a lead programmer with deep knowledge of PC and Xbox 360, including both high-level engine design and down-to-the-metal optimization. We had one of the best Polish GPU programmers with PlayStation 3 experience as a contractor. We had an extremely experienced gameplay programmer. And all those people had worked together for a couple of years in the past. This was a real asset, and we decided to use it to our advantage.

We limited the feature and tool lists to the absolutely necessary -- locations created out of XSI prefabs, top-down view, game logic created in Lua scripts, single player only, with a light pre-pass renderer for the sake of simplicity.

Everything that remained, however, we implemented at a state of the art level. We implemented a scene preprocessor to combine prefabs and optimize draw call count. We developed a smart multithreading architecture with one thread designed to do barely anything but feed GPU with data, and the other one processing game logic and nothing more -- the two most CPU-heavy tasks.

We optimized our pre-pass renderer extensively, fighting for the last shader instructions and GPU memory bandwidth. We implemented our math library with the use of vector units of all CPUs we supported. We designed a nice resource system with overlapped data loading, decompression, uploading to the GPU memory, and dealing with console memory fragmentation. We implemented a proprietary RTTI system to deal with serialization and developed a localization system with full support for Unicode.

The key to quick and efficient development was to enable gameplay programmers to work on the actual game almost from the start. So Lua integration came online as soon as the engine was capable of displaying a simple wireframe mesh. This way, while the engine was being developed, the game prototyping went on.

In terms of tools, we went with level editor, material editor, particle editor, sfx editor and localization editor -- mostly the tools supporting the visual side of the project. What we decided to skip were gameplay-related tools. So all game logic, cutscenes, UI flow was programmed in Lua scripts. It was enough to create a good game; however, it was a bit tiresome at the end. When the project went gold, we decided to work on additional tools to make gameplay flow creation more efficient.

Looking back, our decision to develop our own engine was 100 percent right. When we wanted to add PlayStation support, we could. iOS, Android, Linux, Blackberry -- same story. Sure, it was a lot of work. Each platform was a challenge. However it was also extremely rewarding. And it left us in total control. If one day we decide to develop Anomaly Warzone Earth for a mind-controlled refrigerator -- we will be able to.

Article Start Page 1 of 4 Next

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